[citation needed], The communist movement in Nepal traces its history back to Pushpa Lal Shrestha, the father of Nepali communism and the founder and general secretary of the first Nepali communist party, the Communist Party of Nepal. Communist parties follow a pattern similar to that of religious groups. Indeed, no communist parties that won a significant number of seats in elections did so without announcing an explicit commitment to multiparty democracy. The Chinese Communist Party and Nepal Communist Party were regularly engaged in training programmes. Though the followers of each cult identify themselves as Hindus and swear allegiance to the primary Hindu scriptures like the Vedas and the Gita, records show these splinter groups often clash with each other. Senior Chinese Communist Party leader arrives in Kathmandu “to assess” Nepal's evolving political situation after House dissolution ... evolving political situation after the dissolution of the House of Representatives and subsequent split in the ruling Nepal Communist Party (NCP) amid already-deepened intraparty rift. Comparatively, the frequency at which political parties of other ideological persuasions break is much less. In the case of CPN-UML, it was formalised with the people's multiparty democracy manifesto. [18], By 2006, the major political parties, including the maoists, had come to an agreement to launch a coordinated attempt to depose the king and establish a democratic republic, by means of a popular protest. They have all been given elevated positions in the party. The communist movement in Nepal has split into factions multiple times and multiple factions have come together into a single fold at times as well. Both movements resulted in thousands of executions and numerous imprisonments. [15] However, during the short tenure, Adhikari government introduced a number of welfare programs, most significant of which was a monthly stipend to all elderly citizens. They are scrambling for a 'unity' formula. Niranjan Shrestha/AP Show More Show Less 5 of 9 Pushpa Kamal Dahal, leader of the splinter group in the governing Nepal Communist Party, participates in a protest in Kathmandu, Nepal… In the subsequent decades, there emerged an increased skepticism of dogmatic import of foreign ideas and strategies, and an appreciation for the development of an original path to socialism in Nepal, particularly designed to be suited to the Nepali reality. Dahal was right in pointing to unbridled corruption under Oli's watch. The UML made Bhandari its demi-god, but the hybrid he created made the UML bereft of any ideological underpinning. The ban lasted four years and was lifted in 1956. The exchange is beyond the cut and thrust of normal power politics and included accusations of criminal behaviour. Keshar Jung Rayamajhi faction joined the Panchayat system and was expelled from the party by the third party congress held in Benaras in exile, in 1962; Tulsi Lal Amatya became the secretary-general. Following the subsequent end of Panchayat system in favour of constitutional monarchy, the United Left Front would go on to formalise the coalition; CPN-M and CPN-ML uniting into CPN-UML in 1991. In response, Oli characterised the co-chair as lazy, conniving, corrupt, untrustworthy and devoid of conscience and moral compass. It is built into the party's structure and feeds on its ideological contortion when it tries to adapt to a liberal democratic order. [2][38], Other minor parties that do not believe in democracy still continue to take part in the democratic process, citing that their main aim is to establish communism via a direct endorsement of the people through elections. The duel between Prime Minister KP Oli and his co-chair in the Nepal Communist Party, Pushpa Kamal Dahal, intensified in November with Dahal accusing Oli of perfidy, insubordination, incompetence, corruption, egotism and hubris. Should the Nepal Communist Party genuinely want unity, they should first free themselves of the ideological bondage of their communist past, and make their party's operation compatible with a multiparty democratic set-up. [6] In 1954, the party held its first general conference where Man Mohan Adhikari was elected secretary-general. [3] Younger brother to Gangalal Shrestha, Pushpa Lal joined the political fight against the autocratic Rana regime at a young age. The manifesto affirmed the party's commitment to democratic socialism and opened path for its recognition in the international arena as a democratic force with a left-lean, rather than a communist party, despite its name. Vice Minister of the International Department of the CPC Guo Yezhou, who arrived in … Much of what would become the first communist party of Nepal was born during the Indian Independence movement. Madan Bhandari, along with the party's Head of Organisation Department, Jibaraj Ashrit, was killed on a jeep accident later that year; and Madhav Kumar Nepal became general secretary. Baloch rights council urges UN to ensure probe into activist's death [5][2], One of the most significant factions to emerge was the guerilla movement known as Jhapa movement, led by young activists Mohan Chandra Adhikari, Chandra Prakash Mainali and Radha Krishna Mainali, and influenced by Charu Mazumdar, the architect of Naxalite guerilla movement in neighbouring north-east India. When the community fails to realise the lofty goals set in the scriptures (and this invariably happens) or the leaders do not live by the code of ethics required by the scriptures, priests and pastors (party leaders) are accused of heresy, the reinterpretation of the scriptures begins, and eventually, factions develop much like religious sects as offshoots of mainstream religions. Oli is a 'revisionist', says Dahal, meaning he is reinterpreting The Communist Manifesto in collusion with the bourgeoisie. [1] By 1930, communist writings had begun to be smuggled into Nepal and two of the four great martyrs, Dasharath Chand and Gangalal Shrestha were known to have been readers of communist literature. The Nepal Communist Party's 'Senior Leaders' include two ex-prime ministers and one who lost the last election. PTI … ", "Nepali Times | The Brief » Blog Archive » RK Mainali rejoins UML", "The Rising Nepal: A Leader Who Stands Out From The Crowd : Dr. Narad Bharadwaj", "International Development Department (IDD) - School of Government - University of Birmingham", "The Rising Nepal: 'UML focused on how to lead the nation, "Govt increases social security allowance of senior citizens", "Is Nepal headed towards a communist state? By 2005, the civil war had reached a stalemate, both politically and militarily. On 15 December 1960, king Mahendra, in a bloodless coup, deposed the democratically elected Nepali Congress government, imprisoned many political leaders including the deposed prime minister BP Koirala, and established the "partyless" Panchayat system. The Nepal Communist Party's 'Senior Leaders' include two ex-prime ministers and one who lost the last election. [1] Disillusioned by the political infighting within the party, and the party's willingness to cooperate with some Ranas, Pushpa Lal left the party he was the office secretary of, and sought to birth an "uncompromising political struggle" against the Rana regime. The Maoist party led by Dahal also became enmeshed in the same ideological confusion when they accepted multiparty parliamentary democracy as the country's governance model whilst refusing to shake off their communist past. [19] In the next decade, two constituent assembly elections were held, and Nepal was established as secular federal democratic republic in the Constitution of Nepal 2015. The Chinese Communist Party and Nepal Communist Party were regularly engaged in training programmes. PTI … Chinese delegation meets Prachanda. The two are antithetical. The Chinese Communist Party and Nepal Communist Party were regularly engaged in training programmes. This would be a serious infraction in a communist set-up but, in a parliamentary democracy, it is a non-issue. With the Nepal Communist Party unity falling apart, China is sending a vice minister of the Chinese Communist Party to Kathmandu in what is believed to be Beijing's effort to assess the ground situation. [31] The NCP continues to reaffirm its commitment to democracy having been the ruling party with a strong majority in all levels of government since the beginning of 2018; however, it is also claimed that the party's ultimate goal is Socialism or communist totalitarianism. [5][13] The 1993 general conference ratified the party ideology dubbed People's multiparty democracy (PMD), and elected its principal architect, Madan Bhandari as the general secretary, with Adhikari remaining party chairman. Lama was the central committee member of the ruling Nepal Communist Party (NCP) and had joined the communist party in 2033 BS from the then Nirmal Lama-led party. [5][7], Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist-Leninist) (CPN - UML), under the leadership of Man Mohan Adhikari, won 69 out of 205 seats in the 1991 elections, becoming the second largest party and the main opposition party. In Nepal's political culture, leaders never retire because politics has paid them well. It has eluded communists all over the world since the Bolsheviks took power in Russia in 1918. Communism arrived relatively late in Nepal because of the country's isolation from the rest of the world during the Rana regime. Hou has already held meetings with President Bhandari, senior NCP leaders Prachanda and Madhav Kumar Nepal, former House speakers Krishna Bahadur Mahara and Barsha Man Pun, among others. Kathmandu [Nepal], December 23 (ANI): Pushpa Kamal Dahal, co-chair of the Nepal Communist Party (NCP) on Wednesday replaced KP Sharma Oli as parliamentary leader of the ruling NCP in Parliament. Since I am the first … After the Maoists and other main political parties (communist and otherwise) formed a united coalition, launching a successful peaceful civil resistance against the dictatorial coup d'état by the monarchy, which resulted in the abolition of the monarchy and drafting of a new constitution affirming Nepal as a secular, federal, democratic republic striving towards democratic socialism, the two main communist parties of Nepal contested the first election according to the new constitution as a coalition, eventually leading to the unification of two parties with a strong majority in the federal parliament as well as six out of seven provinces of Nepal. However, since more than one communist party cannot exist in these countries, the dissenting voices are crushed before they gather momenta such as the Kronstadt Revolt in 1921 in Russia, and the 'Let a hundred flowers bloom; let a hundred schools of thought contend' episode in China. The lack of ideological clarity undercuts the party's sense of purpose, and the unending conflict saps confidence that the party will survive its full tenure in government. [4][5][1][2], Following the end of the Rana regime in 1951, Nepal saw a brief period of exercise in democracy, with Nepali Congress, the king and the Ranas as the main players. Nepal Prime Minister K P Sharma Oli has been removed as the parliamentary leader of Nepal Communist Party amid an internal turbulence within the Himalayan nation's ruling party … It broke into pro-Chinese and pro-Soviet factions. Nepal's opposition has voiced concerns over the ruling Nepal Communist Party's two-day training programme on 'Xi Jinping Thought', conducted here by a 50-member team of the Communist Party … [2] The country was still largely illiterate. A communist party is like a religious group. The maoists mainly employed guerilla tactics, attacking police stations and government infrastructures. In 1957, the leader of the pro-monarchy faction, Keshar Jung Rayamajhi, replaced Adhikari as the secretary-general. Should that happen, they would be deprived of the power, prestige and financial gains that the party's control of the government has brought. This is not the first time that China has intervened in Nepal's internal affairs at a time of crisis. [16] Government stipend to elderly and widows have been increased significantly. [7] The guerilla insurgency was brought to an abrupt halt in 1971, when Nepal army launched an effective counter-insurgency, killing many cadres. Minor splinter groups that separated from Maoist party when it joined the peace process continue to carry out actions designed to intimidate and terrorise people, from time to time. [1] On 22 April 1949, he founded the Communist Party of Nepal along with four other colleagues, in Calcutta. Tensions, however, have grown between Oli and the leader … [20] Following the historic promulgation of the constitution via constituent assembly and federalisation of the country, a series of elections were announced for the formation of the new governments at the local, provincial and federal level according to the new constitution. The Nepal Communist Party's rank and file are worried the confrontation may split the party. The comprehensive failure of Jhapa movement led to self-reflection among the increasingly intellectual ranks of the Nepali communist movement. While the Maoists allied with Nepali Congress against CPN-UML in the local elections at many places,[21][22] by the time of the federal legislative elections, the two communist parties CPN-UML and CPN-MC had officially declared their intention to merge post-election and to that end fielded joint candidates in all constituencies. [16] In 1998, 46 lawmakers defected to form their own party, including influential figures of the leadership like CP Mainali, Jhalanath Khanal, Sahana Pradhan and Bamdev Gautam. The popular welfare program would secure CPN UML's future in Nepali politics for decades to come. Regardless of their age or success as leaders, they stay active in the party, create factions, and bargain for a share in government or powerful bodies within the party, something that is extensively practised by other political parties. The country was still largely illiterate. According to Nepal Communist Party leaders, the Chinese delegation though did not bring up external forces, it conveyed Beijing’s message to the Nepali leadership that it is concerned about any political instability in Nepal. On 14 October 2017, Naya Shakti Partybroke from the alliance citing differences with the tw… On 3 October 2017, the two major communist parties, the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) and the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) along with the Naya Shakti Party announced a coalition for the upcoming legislative and provincial election. Communism arrived relatively late in Nepal because of the country's isolation from the rest of the world during the Rana regime. The party continued to absorb minor factions of the communist movement throughout the 1980s, and by the mid 1980s, had emerged as the premier communist force overshadowing the pro-soviet Communist Party of Nepal - Marxist (CPN-M) led by veteran leaders Man Mohan Adhikari and Sahana Pradhan (Pushpa Lal Shrestha's widow). Chinese delegation meets Nepal PM amid political crisis. Senior Chinese Communist Party leader holds talks with PM Oli and President Bhandari as the ruling communist party on the verge of split. Kathmandu: A high-level Chinese delegation led by a vice minister of the Communist Party of China met senior Nepal Communist Party leader Pushpa Kamal Dahal Prachanda on Monday and discussed the political situation in the country, amid an intensified efforts by Beijing to patch up differences between the two warring factions of the party. Within the Nepal Communist Party, this propensity for conflict is aggravated by the party's ideological contortions and the competing vested interests of its ageing senior leaders. The last time I checked, over 100 communist parties had run through the cycle there. The three parties also announced plans for unification following the election with the formation of a Unification Coordination Committee. The development comes after Chinese ambassador in Nepal Hou Yanqi held a series of meetings with the president and top leaders of the NCP, including Prachanda and Madhav Nepal, who has replaced Oli as chairman of the Prachanda-led faction. There is no place for multiparty liberal democracy in communist evolution. One of Dahal’s charges against the prime minister is that Oli does not consult the party when he appoints his Cabinet members and office bearers in senior positions within the bureaucracy. Following the Raksadal revolt of 1952, the party was banned on 24 January 1952. By 1930, communist writings had begun to be smuggled into Nepal and two of the four great martyrs, Dasharath Chand and Gangalal Shrestha were known to have been readers of communist literature. In September last year, the NCP had even organised a symposium, inviting some leaders from the Chinese Communist Party to Kathmandu to impart training to Nepali leaders on the Xi Jinping Thought ahead of the visit of the Chinese president, his first to Nepal, the Post reported. One member who would later emerge as one of the most powerful communist leaders in Nepal, KP Sharma Oli, is credited by some, for playing a part in shifting the party ideology from violent insurgency to peaceful political struggle. Then let the oldies go! Bhandari wanted his party to at once embrace the contradictory ideals of democracy and communism. Stipends to the unemployed have been promised. Man Mohan Adhikari became prime minister of the minority government which lasted only nine months. In the case of the Maoists, the same policy was put forward as the 21st century's people's multiparty democracy. Between 1962 and 2013, 50 Nepali communist parties passed through the cycle of breakage and merger. In 1990, it formed the United Left Front with CPN-M, joined together with Nepali Congress, and organised and participated in the peaceful civil resistance of 1990. This uncertainty creates the environment for political corruption we are witnessing in the Oli government. While continuing to be a part of the Indian independence movement, many Nepali students, leaders and activists in India, began to organise under the common goal of birthing a conscious political movement against the Rana regime, and bringing democracy to Nepal, with the help of the Indian friends, after independence was achieved in India. [30] People's multiparty democracy principle of CPN UML and 21st century's people's multiparty democracy principle along with Prachandapath (Prachanda's way) of Maoists are examples of original thought or adaptation of traditional communist philosophy to modern times and Nepali landscape. [14] In the 1994 midterm elections, CPN-UML became the largest party, winning 88 seats, mainly on the back of the popular PMD, and public sympathy at the loss of Madan-Ashrit. The party's role is to support the government and audit its performance. The lack of ideological clarity is part of the reason for the party's current crisis. Pushpa Lal Shrestha and his party returned to Nepal. [7] However, the new party only garnered 6.4% of the vote in the 1999 elections, and the vote division only led to the victory of Nepali Congress. [2][1] After his meeting with the noted Indian communist leader Nripendra Chakrawarti, he settled upon founding a communist party, deeming the support of the international socialist movement an indispensable asset in the struggle against feudalism. [3][17][28][29][30], Nepali communist parties subscribe to Marxism, Leninism, Maoism, or any combination of the three. King Gyanendra had taken over direct rule of the country citing failure of the political parties to provide peace and security in the country, the Maoist party was deeply entrenched in the rural villages of Nepal and possessed the capability to bring the country to a standstill by calling a general strike whenever it desired but had no capability to dislodge the Nepali joint armed forces from district headquarters, while the major political parties, including Nepali congress and CPN-UML were seeking a way to end violence in the country, as well as end direct rule of the king through popular protests. But long-term 'unity' in a communist party is hard to come by. [2][1] The party had a poor showing in the general election of 1959, under the Rayamajhi leadership, winning just four seats out of 109 and 7.4% of the total votes cast. [1] The party continued to move towards democratic socialism, and in 1986, elected Madan Bhandari, who would later go on to architect the people's multi-party democracy principle, as general secretary. The charges and counter-charges in Dahal and Oli's recent exchanges have as much to do with their personalities and personal ambitions as with the religion-like structure of the communist movement. The power-tussle between Oli and Prachanda of the Nepal Communist Party has now resulted in Nepal going for mid-term elections once again. After Nepal Army was deployed and violence intensified, war crimes and crimes against humanity were committed by both sides. [30], While the minor communist parties continue to hold a variety of far-left ideologies, including a support for party-less communist autocracy held by many, the mainstream communist parties have affirmed their commitment to democracy. As K P Sharma Oli, the Nepal Communist Party (NCP) chair and prime minister, in a bid to achieve a majority in the party Central Committee announced a … The Chinese Communist Party and Nepal Communist Party were regularly engaged in training programmes. Communist parties are, by nature, prone to ideological conflict, frequent break-ups and mergers. [8][9][10][11][12] Male focused on grass-roots movement and mass-education of the workers and peasant class. [5][2] A faction led by Madhav Kumar Nepal as well as another faction led by Madan Bhandari had merged with All Nepal Communist Revolutionary Coordination Committee (Marxist–Leninist) by 1977, which launched Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist), popularly known as Male, in 1978. But it was like the pot calling the kettle black, as Pushpa Kamal Dahal himself is alleged to be one of the most corrupt politicians in the country. They have all been given elevated positions in the party. In September last year, the NCP had even organised a symposium, inviting some leaders from the Chinese Communist Party to Kathmandu to impart training to Nepali leaders on the Xi Jinping Thought ahead of the visit of the Chinese president, his first to Nepal, the paper added. Communism in Nepal traces its roots back to the pro-democracy movement of 1951, and the subsequent overthrow of the autocratic Rana regime and the establishment of democracy in Nepal. List of anti-capitalist and communist parties, Proletarian Revolutionary Organisation, Nepal, Revolutionary Communist Organisation, Nepal, Revolutionary Communist Organising Committee, Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist), All Nepal Communist Revolutionary Coordination Committee (Marxist–Leninist), Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist), "41st Pushpa Lal Memorial Day being observed today", "::Gorkhapata::The Rising Nepal::Madhupark::Yubamanch::Muna", "Download citation of Democratisation and the growth of communism in Nepal: A Peruvian scenario in the making? [15] Most of the leaders were back to CPN UML by 2002 and only a small splinter group led by CP Mainali remained outside, forming their own party. Everyone seems to be on the take before the government falls. And as time went on, they disintegrated into more factions, all calling themselves 'communists'. The faction led by Co-chair Pushpa Kamal Dahal removed KP Sharma Oli from the post of party co-chair and unanimously nominated senior party leader Madhav Kumar … With this open campaign for democracy, Male bolstered its support among pro-democracy electorate as well as the international community and had emerged as the premier force of the Nepali communist movement. The Chinese Communist Party and Nepal Communist Party were regularly engaged in training programmes. The high-level Chinese delegation led by a vice minister of the Communist Party of China met top Nepal Communist Party leaders on Monday and discussed the political situation in the country as Beijing tries to patch differences between Nepal's feuding leaders. [2][3] He translated the Communist manifesto and other writings of Lenin and Mao, in addition to his own original writings on Nepali struggle for democracy and Nepal's future path. The communist parties in China and the old Soviet Union also have factional fights. In a communist system, the government takes orders from the party in the exercise of its executive functions. The ideological contortion within Nepali communists started with the late Madan Bhandari declaring 'People's Multiparty Democracy' as the ideology of the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist), which was Oli's party before the Nepal Communist Party was formed. Disunity is in a communist party's DNA. Hinduism splintered into Shaivism, Vaishnavism and many, many cults. Maoists joined the parliament with an equal number of nominated seats as the leader of the opposition CPN UML. [2] In the municipal elections held in September 1953, NCP candidates won six seats, even though the party was officially banned. China, on the other hand, rushed in a high-level delegation led by a vice minister of the Chinese Communist Party to prevent a split in the ruling Nepal Communist Party. UML leader K.P. ", "Nepal Elects a Maoist to Be the Prime Minister", "Nepal's new constitution endorsed through Constituent Assembly — Xinhua | English.news.cn", "UML wins mayor, deputy mayor in Pokhara Lekhnath metropolis", "CPN-UML and CPN-Maoist Centre form alliance in Nepal", "Nepali Communists win landslide, but face big obstacles to win change", "UML to get 4 chief ministers, Maoist Centre 2", "Left alliance wins 27 seats, Nepali Congress 5 in Nepal polls", "KP Sharma Oli appointed Nepal's new prime minister", "Bidya Devi Bhandari re-elected Nepal's president", "UML- Maoist Center unification approved, new party to be registered today itself", "The (Re)Birth of the Nepal Communist Party", "People's democracy or socialism: NCP leaders confused", "Left alliance leaders say they will build a communist state", "Govt lowers age for senior citizen allowance to 65 years", "New bill 'aims at curtailing press freedom, "And then they came for my Instagram filter", "Proposed new social media law limits freedom of expression", "Ncell blast victim's kin wants govt to act against Chand's CPN", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Communism_in_Nepal&oldid=1000196081, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 02:02. The Nepal Communist Party, formed by the merger of the UML and the Maoists, inherited the same contorted ideology. [17][13] All together more than 13 000 people (4 500 by Maoists and 8 200 by the government forces) were killed, hundreds went missing and at least 200 000 were displaced during the Nepalese Civil War in 1996-2006. In the late 1950s, the Chinese and Soviet communists disagreed on the interpretation of their scripture in respect of the strategy to advance the movement, and the world's communist movement split into two major camps. [24][25][26] After the elections, the two parties had merged, with chairmen of both parties sharing the chair of the new party and chairman of CPN-UML becoming prime minister of the new government. Christianity and Islam provide more severe examples of disintegration and murderous infighting. The Nepal Communist Party may come up with some band-aid solution to avert its immediate split, but long-term unity in the party is impossible within Nepal's democratic set-up and political culture, particularly when the party is bereft of any coherent ideology. In a parliamentary democracy, the government operates with full independence in exercising its authority. Oli’s party and the party of former Maoist rebels had merged to form a unified Communist party. [2][1] The communist movement further splintered into many factions in the coming decades of political struggle against the Panchayat system, while in exile and underground. In April 2006, the peaceful revolution became successful in persuading the king to relinquish power and reinstate the dissolved parliament. In September last year, the NCP had even organised a symposium, inviting some leaders from the Chinese Communist Party to Kathmandu to impart training to Nepali leaders on the Xi Jinping Thought ahead of the visit of the Chinese president, his first to Nepal, the paper added. [2] Much of what would become the first communist party of Nepal was born during the Indian Independence movement. [27] As of 2019, KP Sharma Oli was prime minister and Pushpa Kamal Dahal and KP Oli shared the chair of Nepal Communist Party (NCP), the ruling party of Nepal and of six out of seven provinces. Leader holds talks with PM Oli and President Bhandari as the ruling Communist party and Nepal Communist party Nepal... Party leader holds talks with PM Oli and President Bhandari as the secretary-general Coordination Committee Bhandari his! And militarily has eluded communists all over the world during the Indian Independence movement relinquish power and the... 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